Thursday, March 20, 2008

Semana Santa

SEMANA SANTA
(Ni Koyang Jess)


Ang Semana Santa ang huli at pinakatampok na linggo ng Kuwaresma, ang 40-araw na pag-aayuno ng mga Katoliko. Ito ang panahon ng paggunita sa kamatayan at muling pagkabuhay ni Hesukristo. Sa Pinas, ang gayong paggunita ay nasa anyo ng literatura, musika, drama, at maging ng eskultura.

Ang pasyon, halimbawa, ay patulang salaysay ng buhay ni Kristo. Ang pabasa ay pagkanta sa pasyon. Ang senakulo naman ay pagsasadula nito. At ang prusisyong pang-Mahal na Araw ay isang pagtatanghal ng mga tagpo ng pasyon sa anyo ng inukit na estatwa ng mga poon.

Kakatwa ang terminong "pabasa" sapagkat ang pasyon ay hindi binabasa lamang kundi kinakanta. Dati-rati, ang pagkanta ng pasyon ay a capella o walang saliw na instrumento. Pero ngayon, inaakumpanyahan ito ng gitarista, rondalya, o ng isang pangkat ng mga instrumentalista. Karaniwan, ang pabasa ay idinadaos sa bisita o kapilya ng nayon. Gayunman ang mga may-ari ng bawat poon ay nagdaraos din ng sariling pabasa. Sa kapilya, kadalasa'y dalawang ulit binabasa nang buo ang pasyon, nagsisimula sa Miyerkoles Santo at nagtatapos sa Biyernes Santo.

Isang aktibidad ng komunidad ang pabasa, kaya naman buong nayon (maliban siyempre sa mga di-Katoliko) ay lumalahok dito. Bawat pamilya ay may toka o kaya'y boluntaryong kontribusyon -- maaaring pera, pagkain, o maiinom (ang huli'y karaniwang salabat na umano'y pampaganda ng boses o panlaban sa pamamaos).

Sa ilang lugar sa Katagalugan, halimbawa'y sa Bulacan, bawat pamilyang nagmamay-ari ng poon ay may sariling pabasa. Dito'y sagot ng may-ari ng poon ang lahat ng gastusin sa pabasa. Merong mga propesyonal -- ibig sabihi'y binabayaran -- na tagabasa ng pasyon.

Pero dahil magastos umupa ng propesyonal at dahil pangkomunidad nga ang pabasa, kadalasa'y "nagsasakripisyo" na lang ang mga taganayon at sila-sila na lang ang nagsasalitan sa pagkanta. At narito ang ganda at kulay ng pabasa, ang salimbayan ng iba't ibang kalidad (o kawalan nito) ng boses at pagkanta.

Katunayan, ang hilig ng Pinoy sa videoke, ay maaaring ugatin sa tradisyon ng pabasa. Hindi nga ba't sa videoke, kadalasa'y nakatuon sa iskrin ng monitor ang mata ng kumakanta, binabasa ang teksto, kahit kabisadong-kabisado niya ang piyesa?

Samantala, ang tradisyunal na senakulo ay dulang ang usapan ay patula, ibig sabihi'y may tugma at sukat. Idinadaos ito sa kalye, sa mga entabladong yari sa kawayan at kahoy, ang mga tauhan ay may kasuutang halaw pa sa panahon ni Kristo.

Maliban sa ilang pook, tulad ng Parañaque, mahirap nang makatagpo ng tradisyonal na pagsasadula ng buhay at sakit ni Kristo. (Ang Moriones sa Marinduque ay nakatuon sa istorya ni Longhinus, ang senturyong umulos sa dibdib ni Kristo.) Sa modernong senakulo, tulad ng isinasagawa ng ilang aktibistang pangkat-dulaan, si Kristo ay nagiging si Juan dela Cruz, ang karaniwang Pinoy, na pasan pasan ang mga pahirap ng kasalukuyang lipunan: mataas na presyo ng bilihin, mababang suweldo, militarisasyon, katiwalian sa gobyerno, atbp. Ang mga tauhan ay manggagawa, magsasaka, iskwater; ang mga senturyon ay unipormadong sundalo at pulis.

Buhay pa rin hanggang ngayon ang tradisyon ng penitensiya, ang kusang pagpalo -- o pagpapahagupit -- sa sariling katawan. Wari'y hindi pa sapat ang hirap ng buhay sa panahong ito kaya kailangan pang dumanas ng pisikal at madugong pagpaparusa sa sarili. Ang ilan ay aktuwal na nagpapapako sa krus. Ito umano ay panata, paghuhugas ng kasalanan, pagpapatibay ng pananalig sa Maylikha.
Totoong maraming tradisyunal na anyo ng paggunita sa pasyon ni Kristo. Pero ang "makabago" at mas popular na pagdiriwang ngayon ay ang pagliliwaliw sa Boracay o Puerto Galera, pag-uukay-ukay sa Baguio, o -- kung kaya ng bulsa -- "pamamanata" sa Bangkok o Hong Kong.

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